Konkan

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Coastline of India
A schematic map of the Konkan belt in Maharashtra, showing hill stations and the roadways and railways connecting them

Konkan (कोंकण) is a rugged section of the western coastline of India. It consists of the coastal districts of Maharashtra, Goa, and Karnataka. The ancient Saptakonkana is a slightly larger region. The region is known as Karavali in Karnataka.

Variants

Location

Konkan extends throughout the Western Coasts of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka.[1] It is bounded by the Western Ghats mountain range (also known as Sahyadri) in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Daman Ganga River in the north and the River Aghanashini in the south.

The Gangavalli flows in the district of Uttara Kannada in present-day Karnataka. Its northern bank constitutes the southernmost portion of Konkan. The towns of Karwar, Ankola, Kumta, Honavar and Bhatkal fall within the Konkan Coast.

The largest city on the Konkan coast is Mumbai, the state capital of Maharashtra. These are, from north to south:[2]

  1. Palghar district
  2. Thane district
  3. Mumbai Suburban district
  4. Mumbai City district
  5. Raigad district
  6. Ratnagiri district
  7. Sindhudurg district
  8. Goa
  9. Uttara Kannada

Origin of name

Konkan Jats : The ancient Mandas Jats gave the first Historical Empire of the Jats in the western Plateau of Iran.[3] Devaka had established the first empire of the Manda Jats in about 700 B.C. The later Achaemenian empire was an offshoot of Manda empire, because Cyrus the Great, was son of Mandani, a daughter of the last Manda emperor, Ishtuvegu. [4] During the rein of Cyrus (c. 576 BC–530 BC), due to internal wars, the first migration of the Jats took place from the Manda Empire and from other parts of Central Asia to India. [5] [6], [7] Konkan or Kunkana clan of Jats gave name to this region. They were descendant of Nagavanshi ruler Kukuna mentioned in Mahabharata (V.103.10).

Jat clans

Konkan (कोंकण) is a Jat clan.[8]

History

Legend: According to the Sahyadrikhanda of the Skanda Purana, Parashurama shot his arrow into the sea and commanded the Sea God to recede up to the point where his arrow landed. The new piece of land thus recovered came to be known as Sapta Konkana, meaning "piece of earth", "corner of earth", or "piece of corner", derived from Sanskrit words: koṇa (कोण, corner) + kaṇa (कण, piece).[9][10]

The above legend of Parashurama is mythological and has no historical and scientific basis. But we find mention of Parshusthana पर्शुस्थान (AS, p.534) in Ashtadhyayi (5,3,117) of Panini. Parshu was a tribe probably inhabited areas near Kabul and their habitation was known as Parshusthana. Parshu is probably related with ancient Persia or present Iran. [11] The Konkan area is also known as Parashurama Kshetra. This indicates that the Parshu tribe was one of the migrant tribes from Iran.

Xuanzang, the noted Chinese Buddhist monk, mentioned this region in his book as Konkana Desha; Varahamihira's Brihat-Samhita described Konkan as a region of India; and 15th century author Ratnakosh mentioned the word Konkanadesha.[12]


Rajatarangini[13] mentions the victory of Kashmira king Lalitaditya over Konkana kingdom. ....Karnāta submitted on his approach. A beautiful Karnāti lady named Ratti who ruled supreme in the south, her territories extending as far as the Vindhya hills, also submitted to him. The army then rested on the banks of the Kaveri beneath the palm trees, drinking the water of coconuts. Thence he marched to Chandanadri. And then the king crossed the sea passing from one Island to another ; and thence marched towards the west, the sea singing the songs of his victory. He then attacked the seven Kramuka and the seven Kongkana which suffered much thereby. His army was anxious to enter Dvaraka situated on the Western Sea. The army then crossed the Vindhya hills and entered Avanti where there was an image of Shiva named Mahakala.

Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD

Alexander Cunningham[14] writes that From Malayakuta the pilgrim returned to Dravida (Conjeveram), and then proceeded to the north-west for 2000 li, or 333 miles, to Kong-kien-na-pu-lo, or Konkanapura.[15] Both the bearing and distance point to Annagundi on the northern bank of the Tungabhadra river, which was the ancient capital of the country before the Muhammadan invasion. M. Vivien de Saint-Martin has suggested the old town of Banawasi, which is mentioned by Ptolemy as Banauasei. But the distance is rather too great, and the subsequent bearing to the capital of Maharashtra would be almost due north instead of north-west as stated by the pilgrim. Annagundi is a remarkable old site, and was the capital of a Yadava dynasty of princes before the foundation of the modern city of Vijayanagar on the southern bank of the river.[16]

According to Hamilton, the name of Konkana amongst the natives includes " much country lying to the east of the western ghats." This extension agrees with Abu Rihan's description of Danaka as the "plains of the Konkan" which can only apply to the table-land above the ghats. Such also may have been its application in the time of Hwen Thsang, as ho describes the kingdom as being 5000 li, or 833


[p.553]: miles, in circuit, which, if limited to the narrow strip of land between the ghats and the sea, would include the whole line of coast from Bombay to Mangalur. But in the seventh century the northern half of this tract belonged to the powerful Chalukya kingdom of Maharashtra ; and consequently, if the pilgrim's estimate of its size is correct, the kingdom of Konkana must have extended inland far beyond the line of the western ghats. Its actual limits are not mentioned, but as it was bounded by Dravida on the south, by Dhanakakata on the east, by Maharashtra on the north, and by the sea on the west, it may be described as extending along the coast from Vingorla to Kundapur, near Bednur, and inland from the neighbourhood of Kulbarga to the ancient fortress of Mad-giri, which would give a circuit of about 800 miles. This was the ancient kingdom of the Kadambas, which for a time rivalled that of the Chalukyas of Maharashtra. Hamilton states that the name of the country is pronounced Kokan by the natives, which suggests its identification with the people called Cocondae by Pliny, who occupied a middle position in the route from the south of India towards the mouth of the Indus.

Jat History in Konkan

The ancient Mandas are even now a clan of the Jats in India. It is they who gave the first Historical Empire of the Jats in the western Plateau of Iran.[17]

It was Devaka, who established the first empire of the Manda Jats in about 700 B.C. The later Achaemenian empire was an offshoot of Manda empire, because Cyrus the Great, was son of Mandani, a daughter of the last Manda emperor, Ishtuvegu. [18]

The founder of the empire, Deiokes, hereinafter mentioned as Devaka, immediately formed a powerful army. When the country was secure, he decided to build his capital for which the mighty granite range of mount Alvanda was selected and at a height of 6,000 ft. above sea level the capital of Ecbatana was built. Its present site is the eastern part of modern Hamadan. [19]

It was a result of these wars that the first migration of the Jats took place and from the Manda Empire and from other parts of Central Asia they came to India. That is why Panini mentioned many cities of theirs in the heart of Punjab in the fifth century B.C. But memories die hard. Even today, we have our villages named after the cities lost in Iran. The names like Elam, Bhatona, Susana, Baga, Kharkhoda (Manda Kurukada), etc, are still the names of Jat villages. It is these Jats whom Buddha Prakash Calls, “ exotic and outlandish people” who came to Indian at the time of successors of Cyrus (c. 576 BC–530 BC), [20] and whom Jean Przyluski calls the Bahlikas from Iran and Central Asia. [21], [22]

Mandas in the later period are found settled in Punjab and Sindh in sixth/seventh centuries AD. Ibn Haukal says that “the infidels who inhabited Sindh, are called Budha and Mand.” “The Mands dwell on the banks of Mihran (Sindhu) river. From the boundary of Multan to the sea… They form a large population. [23], [24]

Putative migration waves out of Africa and back migrations into the continent, as well as the locations of major ancient human remains and archeological sites (López et al.2015).

Migration Cause-1: Spread of the epidemics - There are recorded incidences in ancient history that due to spread of epidemics like malaria, people migrated to India because Indians had developed treatment of malaria in Ayurveda. Such migrations were mainly along the coastal areas. A study by scientists from the Sustainability Solutions Research Lab at the University of Pannonia and funded by the Hungarian government opined that India’s ancient medical system helped fight against diseases like malaria thousands of years ago, reports The Times Of India.[25][26]

Migration Cause-2: Fall of the Empires - These Mandas settled in various parts of India and gave names to villages, hills and rivers. Along with Mandas came other Jat clans who gave names to other places. Konkan (कोंकण) Kekan (केकन)/Kikan (किकन)[27] is a Gotra of Jats.[28] They gave name to Konkan province mentioned in Mahabharata. [29]

Migration Cause-3: Foreign Invasions - Alexander the Great invaded Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Susa, Persia, Media, Parthia, Afghanistan, Sogdia, Bactria, Pakistan and India between 331 BC -326 BC. Later on also the Arabs and Turks invaded countries of Central Asia and India. This caused a large scale migration from these countries to India.

Similarity of place names in Konkan region with Jat clans is probably due to these reasons. Traditionally Jat villages used to be named after their clans or the place they had left behind. It is also to be noted that oldest Shiva temples are found in Konkan region (See Ambarnatha). Jats were the earliest followers Shiva. Some of the ancient Jat clans (Shivi, Shivran, Sheokand) claim to have been directly descended from Shiva or his attendant Virabhadra (Punia, Kalhan, Anjana, Jakhar, Bamraulia, Dahiya).

Similarity of place names in Konkan with Jat clans

Here is a partial list of place names in Konkan which appear to have similarity with the Jat clans. What is their correlation and what happened to these early settlers is a subject matter of further research. This list is only indicative.

  1. Agga - Agga is a village in Bhatkal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. (Jat clan - Agga, Aga)
  2. Bahare - Bahare village is located in Dahanu Tehsil of Palghar district, Konkan division in Maharashtra, India. It is situated 15km away from sub-district headquarter Dahanu. (Jat clan - Bahare)
  3. Balale is a village in Ankola tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 15km away from sub-district headquarter Ankola. (Jat clan - Balole)
  4. Bandal - Bandal is a village in Sirsi tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 24km away from sub-district headquarter Sirsi. (Jat clan - Bandal)
  5. Bandhan - Bandhan is a village in Vikramgad taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. (Jat clan - Bandhan)
  6. Bankot (बानकोट) is a town near Bombay in Maharashtra, India. It became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1756. Its most famous structure is Bankot Fort, which was the first residency of the British Raj in Southern Konkan. (Jat clan - Bana)
  7. Bardez (बारदेज़) is a region and taluka situated in the northern portion of the state of Goa, India, in the district of North Goa. It seems to be associated with Burdak clan. (Jat clan - Burdak) (BodagBodakBordakBurdak)
  8. Barvi River - Barvi is name of a river, tributary of Ulhas River, in Thane district of Maharashtra. (Jat clan - Barvi)
  9. Baste - Baste is a village in Vikramgad taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. It is situated 14km away from sub-district headquarter Vikramgad.(Jat clan - Baste)
  10. Bati - the location code or village code of Bati village is 627006. Bati village is located in Sanguem Tehsil of South Goa district in Goa, India. It is situated 12km away from sub-district headquarter Sanguem and 45km away from district headquarter Margao. As per 2009 stats, Bhati is the gram panchayat of Bati village. [30] (Jat clan - Bati)
  11. Berde is a village in Ankola tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 7km away from sub-district headquarter Ankola. (Jat clan - Barad)
  12. Bhaire is a village in Karwar tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 30km away from Karwar. (Jat clan - Bhairi)
  13. Bodageshwar (बोड़गेश्वर) is a Shiva temple situated near Mapusa in Bardez Taluka of Nort Goa district at about 12 kms from Panaji in Goa, India. (Jat clan - Burdak)
  14. Bole Karnataka - Bole is a village in Ankola tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 2km away from sub-district headquarter Ankola. (Jat clan - Bole)
  15. Borande is a village in Vikramgad taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. It is situated 39km away from sub-district headquarter Vikramgad. (Jat clan - Boran)
  16. Benaulim (बेनौलिम) is named after Bana Jats. Benaulim (बेनौलिम) is derived from Banahalli (बाणाहल्ली) or Banawali (बाणावल्ली) which means the village of the Bana people or Banasura. Bana is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in India. Banas are descendants of King Banasura, a follower of Shiva. There is mention of Bana Chieftains along with Pallavas and as feudatory of Cholas in Tamil Nadu. The legend that Parashurama shot his arrow into the sea and created this land does not hold good. This gets support from the fact that it is site of ancient Katyayani Baneshvar temple (Katyayani = Parvati). (Jat clan - Bana)
  17. Cabo de Rama (काब दे राम) is a fort and a beach in Goa, India. Portuguese claimed the Cabo de Rama Fort after defeating the Raja (King) of Soonda and subsequently renovated it. (Soonda is a Jat clan).
  18. Chari Bk is a village in Vikramgad taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. It is situated 12km away from sub-district headquarter Vikramgad. (Jat clan - Chari)
  19. Colva (कोलवा) is a coastal village in Salcete, south Goa, on the west coast of India. (Jat clan - Koli/Kullama).
  20. Dahanu (डहाणू) is a coastal town and a taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. (Jat clan - Daha)
  21. Dandeli (दांदेली) is a town and a taluk in the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is located 96 KM towards East from District head quarters Karwar Karnataka. (Jat clan - Dandak)
  22. Divar (दीवर द्वीप) is an island that lies in the Mandovi river in the Indian state of Goa. (Dar (दार)/ Diyar (दियार) is Jat clan).
  23. Goa (गोवा) is a state on the southwestern coast of India within the Konkan region. Panaji is the state capital. Jat clans - Gowara, Ghuman, Gomat, Gomand)
  24. Gule is a village in Ankola tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 18km away from sub-district headquarter Ankola. (Jat clan - Guli/Gulia)
  25. Guleli - the location code or village code of Guleli village is 626828. Guleli village is located in Satari Tehsil of North Goa district in Goa, India. It is situated 9km away from sub-district headquarter Valpoi and 50km away from district headquarter Panaji. As per 2009 stats, Guleli village is also a gram panchayat. [31] (Jat clan - Guli/Gulia)
  26. Jali - Jali is a village in Bhatkal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. (Jat clan - Jali)
  27. Jatga is a village in Haliyal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 17 km away from sub-district headquarter Haliyal.(Jat clan - Jatga)
  28. Kajali village is located in Talasari Tehsil of Palghar district in Maharashtra, India. It is situated 18km away from sub-district headquarter Talasari. (Jat clan - Kajali)
  29. Kanakeshwar (कनकेश्वर) is a place famous for its old temple of Shiva on the Konkan Coast near Alibag, in Raigad District of Maharashtra, India. (Jat clan - Kang)
  30. Karajgaon: The location code or village code of Karajgaon village is 551562. Karajgaon village is located in Talasari Tehsil of Palghar district in Maharashtra, India. It is situated 8km away from sub-district headquarter Talasari. (Jat clan - Karach)
  31. Karwar (कारवार) is a city and district of Uttara Kannada district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It lies on the west coast of Southern India at the mouth of the Kali river. (Jat clan - Karwar)
  32. Katar - Katar is a village in Karwar tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 30km away from Karwar. It is situated 32km away from Karwar. (Jat clan - Katar)
  33. Khand - Khand is a village in Vikramgad taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. It is situated 27km away from sub-district headquarter Vikramgad.
  34. Kolaba (कोलाबा) is a subarban area of Mumbai. It is part of Konkan region. (Koli/Kullama Jats).
  35. Konar - Konar is a village in Bhatkal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. (Jat clan - Konar)
  36. Konkan (कोंकण) is a rugged section of the western coastline of India. It consists of the coastal districts of Maharashtra, Goa, and Karnataka. Konkan (कोंकण) Kekan (केकन)/Kikan (किकन)[32] is a Gotra of Jats.[33] Kaikan (केकन): Kikan (कीकान) Kaikan (केकन) was a province in Sind. Kikania is the name of a mountain. When the Arab invaders first time came to Kaikan mountains, the Jats repelled them. K.R.Kanungo[34] writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind, Kaikan country was in independent possession of Jats. The country of Kaikan was supposed to be in south-eastern Afghanistan [35], which was conquered from Jats by the Arab general Amran Bin Musa in the reign of the Khalifa Al-Mutasim-bi-llah, (833-881 AD)[36]. During the same reign another expedition was sent against the Jats who had seized upon the roads of Hajar (?)...and spread terror over the roads and planted posts in all directions towards the desert. They were overcome after a bloody conflict of twenty five days. 27000 of them were led in captivity to grace the triumph of victor. It was a custom among these people to blow their horns when Marshalled for battle.[37], [38],[39] (See Jat clan Keken) Ram Swarup Joon[40] writes that The Balhara (Balahara) gotra is found among the Sikh, Muslim and Hindu Jats. In 900 A. D. a King of this gotra was a powerful ruler in the Western Punjab. He has been greatly praised by historian Sulaiman Nadwi, who came to India as a trader. According to him this ruler was one of the four big rulers of world at the time (857 A.D.). He was a friend of the Arabs and his army had a large number of elephants and camels. His country was called Kokan (Kaikan) 'near river Herat. The boundaries of this Kingdom extended from China to the Sea and his neighbors were the Takshak and Gujar kings. Their capital was Mankir.
  37. Mahuli (माहुली) is a historical village located in Shahapur Tehsil of Thane district in Maharashtra, India. (Jat clan - Mahulia)
  38. Maina - the location code or village code of Maina village is 626957. Maina village is located in Quepem Tehsil of South Goa district in Goa, India. It is situated 13km away from sub-district headquarter Quepem and 28km away from district headquarter Margao. As per 2009 stats, Caurem is the gram panchayat of Maina village. [41] (Jat clan - Maina)
  39. Malawad is a village in Haliyal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region.
  40. Malawadsara (मालावाड़्सरा) is a historical village located in Shahapur Tehsil of Thane district in Maharashtra, India. (Jat clan - Malawadsara)
  41. Man - Man is a village in Vikramgad taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. It is situated 30km away from sub-district headquarter Vikramgad. (Jat clan - Man)
  42. Manpada is a village in Talasari taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra state in Konkan division. (Jat clan - Man)
  43. Mandaraja is the name of a viṣaya (province) mentioned in the “Prince of wales museum plates of Mummuṇirāja”. This viṣaya comprised the territory in the vicinity of Dive Āgar. Dive Agar is a village located in Shrivardhan Taluka, Raigad district in the Indian state of Maharashtra, approximately 170 km south of Mumbai. These copper plates (mentioning Kanakeśvara) were handed over to the Curator (Archaeological Section, Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay) by one Hasan Razak. Its object is to record the grant, by Mammuṇirāja, of the village Ki-icchitā (Mandaraja-viṣaya) to twelve Brāhmaṇas residing in the agrahāra of Brahmapurī. The grant was made on the occasion of a lunar eclipse which occurred on the fifteenth tithi of the bright fortnight of Bhādrapada in the Śaka year 971 (=1049 AD), the cyclic year being Virodhin.[42][43]
  44. Mandavi‎‎ (मांडावी) is a village in Vasai City of Palghar district in Maharashtra State, India. It belongs to Konkan region. (Jat clan - Manda)
  45. Mandovi River (मांडवी नदी) is described as the lifeline of the Indian state of Goa. Mandovi River (मांडवी नदी) was name given by Manda Jats who first came to the Konkan region. (Jat clan - Manda)
  46. Mangal - the location code or village code of Mangal village is 626968. Mangal village is located in Quepem Tehsil of South Goa district in Goa, India. It is situated 35km away from sub-district headquarter Quepem and 53km away from district headquarter Margao. As per 2009 stats, Caurem is the gram panchayat of Mangal village.[44] (Jat clan - Mangal)
  47. Mangalawad is a village in Haliyal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 8 km away from sub-district headquarter Haliyal. (Jat clan - Mangla)
  48. Manki: Manki is a village in Honavar tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. (Jat clan - Man)
  49. Moralli is a village in Ankola tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 22km away from sub-district headquarter Ankola. (Jat clan - Mor)
  50. Mori - The location code or village code of Zari village is 551554. Zari village is located in Vasai Tehsil of Palghar district in Maharashtra, India. It is situated 15km away from sub-district headquarter Vasai and 32km away from Thane. As per 2009 stats, Poman is the gram panchayat of Mori village. (Jat clan - Mori)[45]
  51. Mundalli is a village in Bhatkal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. (Jat clan - Mund)
  52. Mundgod is a town in Uttara Kannada in the Indian state of Karnataka. (Jat clan - Mund)
  53. Mundki is a village in Haliyal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 12km away from sub-district headquarter Haliyal. (Jat clan - Mund)
  54. Mundwad is a village in Haliyal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 9km away from sub-district headquarter Haliyal. (Jat clan - Mund)
  55. Nagre - Nagre is a village in Honavar tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 5km away from sub-district headquarter Honnavar. (Jat clan - Nagre)
  56. Panju - The location code or village code of Panju village is 552440. Panju village is located in Vasai Tehsil of Palghar district in Maharashtra, India. It is situated 6km away from sub-district headquarter Vasai and 32km away from Thane. As per 2009 stats, Panju village is also a gram panchayat. (Jat clan - Panju)[46]
  57. Paroda - The location code or village code of Paroda village is 626912. Paroda village is located in Salcete Tehsil of South Goa district in Goa, India. It is situated 12km away from Margao, which is both district & sub-district headquarter of Paroda village. As per 2009 stats, Paroda village is also a gram panchayat. [47] (Jat clan - Paroda)
  58. Ponda (पोंडा), also known as Fonda, is a city and a municipal council in the north Goa district of Goa, India. (Jat clan - Pondal)
  1. Quepem (केपें) is a city and tahsil in the South Goa district of Goa, India. Its ancient name was Kushvan. (Jat clan - Kushvan)
  2. Sanguem (सांगें) is a city and tahsil in the South Goa district of Goa, India. Its variant is Sange. (Jat clan - Sange)
  3. Shilahara (सिलाहार) was a clan of rulers who established in northern and southern Konkan, present-day Mumbai and southern Maharashtra (Kolhapur). Kapardin was the founder of the Northern Silhara family around 800 AD. They were followers of Shiva [48]. (Jat clan - Silar)
  4. Shivalli is a village in Sirsi tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 16km away from sub-district headquarter Sirsi. (Jat clan - [[Shivi])
  5. Siddapur (सिद्दापुर) is a town and a taluk in the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. (Jat clan - [[Siddh])
  6. Siddar : Siddar is a village in Karwar tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 15km away from Karwar. (Jat clan - Siddar)
  7. Sonda - Sonda is a village in Sirsi tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 20km away from sub-district headquarter Sirsi. (Jat clan - Sonda/Sunda/Sodha)
  8. Surve - Surve is a village in Ankola tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. It is situated 5km away from sub-district headquarter Ankola.
  9. Talan: Talan is a village in Bhatkal tahsil of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. It is part of Konkan region. (Jat clan - Talan)
  10. Vada (वाडा) is a village and taluka in Palghar district of Maharashtra State, India. (Jat clan - Vadah)
  11. Varca (वर्का) is a town in Salcete sub-district and South Goa districtin the Indian state of Goa. (Jat clan - Virka).
  12. Zai - The location code or village code of Zai village is 551558. Zai village is located in Talasari Tehsil of Palghar district in Maharashtra, India. It is situated 35km away from sub-district headquarter Talasari and 140km away from Thane. (Jat clan - Jai)
  13. Zari - The location code or village code of Zari village is 551554. Zari village is located in Talasari Tehsil of Palghar district in Maharashtra, India. It is situated 8km away from sub-district headquarter Talasari and 70km away from Thane. (Jat clan - Jaria)

कोंकण

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[49] ने लेख किया है ...कोंकण (AS, p.228) प्राचीन साहित्य में इसे अपरांत का उत्तरी भाग माना गया है। महाभारत शान्ति पर्व 49, 66-67 में अपरांत भूमि का सागर द्वारा परशुराम के लिए उत्सर्जित किये जाने का उल्लेख है।(देखें - अपरान्त) कोंकण का उल्लेख दशकुमारचरित के आठवें उच्छवास में है।

कोंकण परिचय

कोंकण भारत के पश्चिमी भाग में सह्य पर्वत और अरब सागर के बीच उस भूभाग की वह पतली पट्टी है जिसमें ठाणा, कोलाबा, रत्नागिरि, बंबई और उसके उपनगर, गोमांतक (गोवा) तथा उसके दक्षिण का कुछ अंश सम्मिलित है। यह भाग कोंकण कहलाता है। कोंकण का क्षेत्र फल 3,907 वर्गमील है।

कोंकण क्षेत्र में उत्तर से दक्षिण की तरफ सम्मिलित हैं महाराष्ट्र के जिले पालघर, ठाणे, मुंबई जिला, मुंबई उपनगर जिला, रत्नागिरी, रायगड, सिंधुदुर्ग; गोवा; कर्नाटक का उत्तर कन्नड़ जिला।

प्राचीन काल में भड़ोच से दक्षिण का भूभाग अपरांत कहलाता था और उसी को कोंकण भी कहते थे। सातवीं शती ई. के ग्रंथ प्रपंचहृदय में कोंकण का कूपक, केरल, मूषक, आलूक, पशुकोंकण और परकोंकण के रूप में उल्लेख हुआ है। सह्याद्रि खंड में सात कोंकण कहे गए है- केरल, तुलंग, सौराष्ट्र, कोंकण, करहाट, कर्णाट और बर्बर। इससे ऐसा जान पड़ता है कि लाट से लेकर केरल तक की समस्त पट्टी कोंकण मानी जाती थी। चीनी यात्री युवानच्वांग के वर्णन से ऐसा प्रतीत होता हे कि कोंकण से वनवासी, बेलगाव, धारवाड़, और घाटापलिकड का प्रदेश अभिप्रेत था। मध्यकाल में कोंकण के तीन भाग कहे जाते थे- तापी से लेकर बसई तक बर्बर, वहाँ से बाणकोट तक विराट और उसके आगे देवगढ़ तक किरात कहा जाता था।

कोंकण नामकरण: इस प्रदेश के नामकरण के संबंध में लोगों में अनेक प्रकार के प्रवाद प्रचलित हैं।

एक मत के अनुसार ईरान, सिंध और अफ़ग़ानिस्तान के प्राचीन जाट राज्यों से अभिगमन करने वाले जाटों ने यह नाम दिया। ईरान में 700 ई.पू. मंडा जाटों का साम्राज्य था। सायरस महान (c.576 BC–530 BC) के काल में इन जाटों का अभिगमन भारत की ओर हुआ। उस समय मंडा जाटों के साथ अन्य जाट गोत्र भी आए जिन्होने भारत में अनेक स्थानों के नाम दिये। [50] जाटों में कोंकण, केकन/किकन[51] गोत्र अभी भी है। [52]

जाटों में कूकणा / कुंकणा कुकणिया कुकडया[53][54] गोत्र भी हैं जो वर्तमान में हरयाणा और राजस्थान में मिलते हैं। संभवत: ये कुकुण नामक प्राचीन नागवंशी राजा के वंशज हैं जिनका उल्लेख महाभारत उद्योग पर्व (V.103.10) में हुआ है - 'बाह्यकुण्डॊ मणिर नागस तथैवापूरणः खगः, वामनश चैल पत्रश च कुकुरः कुकुणस तथा'।

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि कैक जाट मद्रों की भांति शिवि जाटों की एक शाखा में से बताए जाते हैं। सन् 833 में अरब के सरदार अमरानवीन ने इन लोगों को जीत लिया और यह राज्य सदा के लिए नष्ट कर दिया। यह अफगानिस्तान के दक्षिण पूर्व में केकान पहाड़ के आसपास के प्रदेश के अधिपति थे।[55] ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि कैकान एक प्रदेश का नाम है। कीकानियां नाम का एक पहाड़ भी है। जिस समय कीकान पहाड़ में पहले पहल अरब विजेता आए थे तो जाटों ने उन्हें मारकर भगा दिया था। ‘हिस्ट्री आफ जाटस्’ में श्री कालिकारंजन कानूनगो ने कैकान प्रदेश के जाटों का वर्णन इस प्रकार किया है -

“कैकान का देश, जो कि अफगानिस्तान के दक्षिण-पूर्व में अनुमान किया जाता है, अरब के सेनापति अमरानवीन मूसा ने बाद में उनसे सन् 833 ई. के लगभग छीन लिया था। उन्हीं दिनों में जाटों पर जिन्होंने कि हजारा की सड़क पर अपना अधिकार जमा लिया था और रेगिस्तान की तरफ खम्बे गाड़कर सबके दिल दहला दिए थे, दूसरा हमला किया गया। पच्चीस दिन के खून-खच्चर के बाद वे जीत लिए गए और सत्ताईस हजार की संख्या में कैद कर लिए गए। इन लोगों में लड़ाई के समय तुरई बजाने का रिवाज था।”

दूसरे मत के अनुसार परशुराम की माता कुंकणा के नाम पर इस प्रदेश को कोंकण कहते हैं। इस क्षेत्र में जमदग्नि, परशुराम और रेणुका की मूर्ति कोंकण देव के नाम से पूजित हैं। कुछ लोग इसके मूल में चेर देश के कांग अथवा कोंगु को देखते है; कुछ इसका विकास तमिल भाषा से मानते है।

वस्तुस्थिति जो भी हो, यह नाम ईसा पूर्व चौथी शती से ही प्रचलित चला आ रहा है। महाभारत, हरिवंश, विष्णु पुराण, वरामिहिरकृत बृहत्संहिता, कल्हण कृत राजरंगिणी एवं चालुक्य नरेशों के अभिलेखों में कोंकण का उल्लेख है। पेरिप्लस, प्लीनी, टॉलेमी, स्टेबो, अलबेरूनी आदि विदेशों लेखकों ने भी इसकी चर्चा की है। उन दिनों यूनान, मिस्र, चीन आदि देश के लोग भी इस देश और इसके नाम से परिचित थे। बेबिलोन, रोम आदि के साथ इसका व्यापारिक संबंध था। भड़ोच, चौल, बनवासी, नवसारी, शूर्पारक, चंद्रपुर और कल्याण व्यापार के केंद्र थे।

कोंकण पर अधिकार: ईसा पूर्व की तीसरी-दूसरी शती में यह प्रदेश मौर्य साम्राज्य के अंतर्गत था। पश्चात् इस प्रदेश पर सातवाहनों का अधिकार हुआ। चौथी-पाँचवी शती ई. में यह कलचुरि नरेशों के अधिकार में आया। छठीं शती ई. में यहाँ स्थानीय चालुक्यनरेश पुलकेशिन ने अपना अधिकार स्थापित किया। उसके आद लगभग साढ़े चार सौ वर्ष तक यह भूभाग सिलाहार नरेशों के अधिकार में रहा। 1260 ई. में देवगिरि नरेश महादेव ने इसे अपने राज्य में सम्मिलित किया। 1347 ई. में यादव नरेश नागरदेव को पराजित कर गुजरात सुलतान ने इस पर अपना अधिकार जमाया। जब 16वीं शती का पुर्तग़ालियों ने भारत में प्रवेश किया तो उन्होंने यहाँ के निवासियों का धर्मोन्मूलन कर ईसाई मत फैलाया। छत्रपति शिवाजी के समय जंजीरा को छोड़कर समूचा कोंकण उनके अधिकार में रहा, पश्चात् 1739 ई. तक पुर्तग़ालियों का इस पर एक छत्र अधिकार रहा। उस वर्ष चिमणजी अप्पा ने बसई के क़िले को जीत कर पुर्तग़ालियों की सत्ता नष्ट कर दी और कोंकण पर पेशवा की सत्ता स्थापित हुई, पश्चात् वह अंग्रेज़ों के अधिकार में चला गया।

कोंकण प्रदेश में अनेक बौद्ध एवं हिंदू लयण हैं। ठाणा ज़िले में कन्हेरी, कांदिब्त, जोगेश्वरी, मंडपेश्वर, मागाठन, धारापुरी (एलिफैंटा) कोंडाणे आदि स्थानों के लयण काफ़ी प्रसिद्ध हैं।

भौगोलिक दृष्टि: भौगोलिक दृष्टि से इस भूभाग में 75 से 100 इंच तक वर्षा प्रति वर्ष होती है। समुद्र तटीय क्षेत्रों में नारियल के वृक्ष होते हैं और पश्चिमी घाट के ढाल वनों से आच्छादित है। इस प्रदेश में कोई बड़ी और महत्त्वपूर्ण नदी नहीं हैं। फिर भी यह क्षेत्र काफ़ी उपजाऊ है। धान, दाल, चारा, काफ़ी पैदा होती है।

संदर्भ: भारतकोश-कोंकण

कोंकण रेल्वे से यात्रा

कोंकण रेल्वे से यात्रा

कोंकण भू-भाग पर जब आप यात्रा कर रहे हों तो कोंकण रेल्वे के बारे में भी जानना चाहिए। कोंकण रेल्वे से यात्रा आपको भारत की सबसे शानदार यात्राओं का अनुभव कराती है। ‘तू किसी रेल सी गुजरती है... मैं किसी पुल सा थरथराता हूं...’ दुष्यंत कुमार की इन पंक्तियों को अगर आपको देश में किसी रेल यात्रा के दौरान महसूस करना हो तो आप कोंकण रेलवे की यात्रा पर निकल सकते हैं। महाराष्ट्र के रोहा से शुरू होकर कर्नाटक के ठोकुर तक जाने वाली ये लाइन भारतीय रेलवे के इतिहास में मील का पत्थर है।

कोंकण रेल्वे को आधुनिक भारत की अभियांत्रिकी की उत्कृष्ट कृति के रूप में देखा जाता है। कोंकण रेल्वे के ज़्यादातर स्टेशन शहरों से थोड़े दूर ही हैं, जिनकी तुलना में पुराने समय के स्टेशन्स आमतौर पर शहरों में ही स्थित हैं । कोंकण रेल्वे नाज़ुक पर्वतमालाओं, हरभरे वनों तथा कम ठोस और रेतीले रास्तों से गुजरती हुई जाती है। यहाँ पर विभिन्न नदियां बहती हैं जिन्हें पार करते हुए गुजरना पड़ता है। बरसात के मौसम में पश्चिमी घाट से बहने वाले झरनों का नज़ारा देखते ही बनता है। कोंकण रेल्वे की यात्रा के समय आपको अनेक झरनों की झलक मिलती है। ये झरने ज़्यादातर मौसमी होते हैं और बरसात के मौसम में बारिश पर निर्भर होते हैं। जैसे-जैसे ट्रेन सुरंगों से गुजरती हुई, नदियों को पार करती हुई संकीर्ण पटरियों से जाती है तो वहाँ के सारे नज़ारे देखने लायक होते हैं। ऐसा लगता है मानो सारी जिंदगी इसी ट्रेन में सफर करते रहें।

कोंकण रेल्वे के व्यापक भागों में हरियाली ही हरियाली फैली हुई है। सुरंगों के भीतर जाने और सुरंगों से बाहर निकलने में बहुत मजा आता है। बच्चे ते यह दुर्लभ और सुहाने अनुभव जिंदगी भर नहीं भूलते। कोंकण रेल्वे की यात्रा कोंकण तट का पूरा मजा लूट लेने की आपकी खुशी को दुगुना कर देती है और झरने तो जैसे सोने पे सुहागा।

अंबरनाथ

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[56] ने लेख किया है ...अंबरनाथ (महाराष्ट्र) (AS, p.6) मुंबई से 38 मील पर अंबरनाथ स्टेशन के निकट है. यहाँ शिलाहाट नरेश मांबणि द्वारा निर्मित 'अंबरनाथ' शिव का मंदिर है, जिसे कोंकण का सर्वप्राचीन देवालय माना जाता है. इसकी वास्तुकला उच्चकोटि की है.

In Mahabharata

Konkana (कॊङ्कण) in Mahabharata (VI.10.58)

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Konkana (कॊङ्कण) is mentioned in Mahabharata in the list of the other Provinces in south in verse (VI.10.58).[57]


Sandhya Jain[58] writes that Konkana (कॊङ्कण) Mentioned in 'geography' Mahabharata (VI.10.58), a southern tribe, which did not fight in the war.

External links

References

  1. Saradesāya, Manohararāya (2000). "The Land, the People and the Language". A History of Konkani Literature: From 1500 to 1992. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1–14. ISBN 8172016646.
  2. List of districts in Konkan division
  3. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 127
  4. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 129
  5. Buddha Prakash, Studies in Indian History and Civilisations, P. 35
  6. Journal Asiatique, 1926 , pp.11-13
  7. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 135
  8. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.32,sn-371.
  9. Shastri Gaytonde, Gajanan (ed.). Shree Scanda Puran (Sayadri Khandha) (in Marathi). Mumbai: Shree Katyani Publication.
  10. Satoskar, B. D. Gomantak Prakruti ani Sanskruti. Part 1 (in Marathi). Shubhada Publication. p. 206.
  11. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.534
  12. Saradesāya, Manohararāya (2000). "The Land, the People and the Language". A History of Konkani Literature: From 1500 to 1992. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1–14. ISBN 8172016646.
  13. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book IV,p.68-69
  14. The Ancient Geography of India/Southern India, p.552-553
  15. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 146. See Map No. I.
  16. Wilks' ' Mysore,' i. 14; note, quoting from the Mackenzie MSS.
  17. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 127
  18. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 129
  19. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 129
  20. Buddha Prakash, Studies in Indian History and Civilisations, P. 35
  21. Journal Asiatique, 1926 , pp.11-13
  22. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 135
  23. Elliot and Dowson, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 38
  24. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 136
  25. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ancient-india-thwarted-malaria-at-a-time-no-other-part-of-world-had-study/articleshow/80127069.cms
  26. https://swarajyamag.com/insta/ayurveda-helped-india-combat-malaria-thousands-of-years-ago-when-all-others-failed-hungarian-study
  27. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-71
  28. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.297
  29. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 232
  30. https://villageinfo.in/goa/south-goa/sanguem/bati.html
  31. https://villageinfo.in/goa/north-goa/satari/guleli.html
  32. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-71
  33. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.297
  34. K.R.Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. dr Vir Singh, 2003, p.17
  35. Elliot, I, 383
  36. Elliot, I, 448
  37. Elliot, II, 247
  38. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 702.
  39. Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
  40. Ram Swarup Joon| History of the Jats/Chapter V,p.73
  41. https://villageinfo.in/goa/south-goa/quepem/maina.html
  42. Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
  43. https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/mandaraja
  44. https://villageinfo.in/goa/south-goa/quepem/mangal.html
  45. https://villageinfo.in/maharashtra/thane/vasai/mori.html
  46. https://villageinfo.in/maharashtra/thane/vasai/panju.html
  47. https://villageinfo.in/goa/south-goa/salcete/paroda.html
  48. Dept. Gazetteer: 2002
  49. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.228
  50. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 127-135
  51. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-71
  52. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.297
  53. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.297
  54. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-69
  55. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Shashtham Parichhed, p.125
  56. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.6
  57. कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिदा नलकालकाः, कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI.10.58)
  58. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004,p.132,sn. 71