Agre

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Agre (अग्रे)[1] / Agha (अघा)[2] Ag (अग)[3] Agah (अगा) Agi (अगि) Agach (अगाच)[4] Hunga (हुंगा) Henga (हेंग)[5] Hanga (हंगा)[6] Hanga (हांगा)[7] Hainga (हैंगा)[8] Hanga (हँगा) Haga (हागा)[9] Haga Chaudhary (हगा चौधरी) Agah Chaudhary (अगाह चौधरी) Hega (हेगा) Henga (हेंगा) are some of the names of the clans or gotra of the Jats found in Haryana , Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan in India. Ako and Aka of Afghanistan stand for the Aga Jats.[10] Also these Henga Jats are non but the Hiang-nu of Chinese variants and Huns of Europe, these were the Huna mandal Rulers, who fought with almost every Indian power upto 10th century A.D. It was this clan which produced emperors like Touman, Maodun, Giya in the first three centuries prior to the Christian era.[11] Historian Capt. Dalip Singh Ahlawat mentions them as a Ruling Jat clan in China.[12]

Origin

Jat Gotras Namesake

Mention by Pliny

Pliny[16] mentions The Ariani and the adjoining Nations..... Below all these countries, is the line of coast which we come to after leaving the Indus. Ariana13 is a region parched by the sun and surrounded by deserts; still, however, as the face of the country is every here and there diversified with well-shaded spots, it finds communities grouped together to cultivate it, and more especially around the two rivers, known as the Tonberos14 and the Arosapes.15 There is also the town of Artacoana16, and the river Arius17, which flows past Alexandria18 a city founded by Alexander; this place is thirty stadia in extent. Much more beautiful than it, as well as of much greater antiquity, is Artacabane19, fortified a second time by Antiochus, and fifty stadia in breadth.


13 Pliny is thought to have here confounded the extensive district of Ariana with the smaller province of Aria, which only formed a portion of it. Ariana comprehended nearly the whole of what had been previously ancient Persia.

14 The river known in modern times as the Ilincut, according to Parisot.

15 This is supposed by Forbiger to be the modern Arghasan, one of the tributaries of the Helmend. Parisot says that it was the same as the modern Sat.

16 27 Supposed to be the same as the "Aria civitas," or "city of Aria" of other authors, which, however, is most probably represented by Alexandria, the modern Herat, situate on the small stream now called the Heri-Rud. At all events, Artacoana (proved by M. Court to be a word of Persian origin —Arde Koun) was, if not the same place, at a very small distance from it. M. Barbie de Bocage is of opinion that it occupied the site of Fushing, a town on the Heri river, one stage from Herat; and by M. Court it is thought to have been at Obeh, near the same place.

17 Now called the Heri-Rud, which runs to the west of Herat.

18 It is said that, judging from a traditional verse still current among the people of Herat, that town is believed to unite the claims of the ancient capital built by Alexander the Great, or indeed, more properly, repaired by him, as he was but a short time in Aria. The distance also from the Caspian Gates to Alexandria favours its identification with the modern Herat.

19 This place does not appear to have been identified.


Pliny[17] mentions Mesopotamia .... There are writers who say that the Euphrates was drawn off by an artificial channel by the governor Gobares, at the point where we have stated15 that it branches off,16 in order that it might not commit damage in the city of Babylonia, in consequence of the extreme rapidity of its course. The Assyrians universally call this river by the name of Narmalcha17, which signifies the "royal river." At the point where its waters divide, there was in former times a very large city, called Agranis, which the Persæ have destroyed.


15 In B. v. c. 21.

16 This canal, leading from the Euphrates to the Tigris, is by some thought, according to Hardouin, to have been the river Chobar, mentioned in Ezekiel, c. i. v. 3.

17 For Arar-Melik, meaning the "River King," according to Parisot.


Pliny [18] mentions Arabia.........the Ilisanitæ, the Bachilitæ, the Samnæi, the Amitei, with the towns of Nessa55 and Cennesseris, the Zamareni, with the towns of Sagiatta and Canthace, the Bacascami, the town of Riphearma, the name by which they call barley, the Autei, the Ethravi, the Cyrei and the Mathatræi, the Helmodenes, with the town of Ebode, the Agacturi, dwelling in the mountains, with a town twenty miles distant, in which is a fountain called Ænuscabales56, which signifies "the town of the camels."


55 Agatharchides speaks of a town on the sea coast, which was so called from the multitude of ducks found there. The one here spoken of was in the interior, and cannot be the same.

56 Hardouin observes, that neither this word, nor the name Riphearma, above mentioned, has either a Hebrew or an Arabian origin.


Pliny[19] mentions Arabia....Ampelome57 also, a Milesian colony, the town of Athrida, the Calingii, whose city is called Mariva58, and signifies "the lord of all men;" the towns of Palon and Murannimal, near a river by which it is thought that the Euphrates discharges itself, the nations of the Agrei and the Ammonii, the town of Athenæ, the Caunaravi, a name which signifies "most rich in herds," the Coranitæ, the Œsani, and the Choani59. Here were also formerly the Greek towns of Arethusa, Larisa, and Chalcis, which have been destroyed in various wars.


57 Probably the same place as we find spoken of by Herodotus as Ampe, and at which Darius settled a colony of Miletians after the capture of Miletus, B. C. 494.

58 Hardouin remarks that Mariaba, the name found in former editions, has no such meaning in the modern Arabic.

59 Mentioned by Ovid in the Metamorphoses, B. v. 1. 165, et seq. Sillig, however, reads "Ciani."


Pliny[20] mentions Arabia....We then come to a promontory, from which to the mainland of the Troglodytæ it is fifty miles, and then the Thoani, the Actæi, the Chatramotitæ, the Tonabei, the Antidalei, the Lexianæ, the Agræi, the Cerbani, and the Sabæi37, the best known of all the tribes of Arabia, on account of their frankincense; these nations extend from sea to sea.38


37 Their country is supposed to have been the Sheba of Scripture, the queen of which visited king Solomon. It was situate in the south-western corner of Arabia Felix, the north and centre of the province of Yemen, though the geographers before Ptolemy seem to give it a still wider extent, quite to the south of Yemen. The Sabæi most probably spread originally on both sides of the southern part of the Red Sea, the shores of Arabia and Africa. Their capital was Saba, in which, according to their usage, their king was confined a close prisoner.

38 The Persian Gulf to the Red Sea.


Maratha Jat connections

Ranmal Singh pointed out Maratha Jat connections. Some of the Maratha clans evolved from Jat clans as under:

This is based on oral History and needs Genealogical research to establish any Jat-Maratha Connection.

Agha in Bhagawata Purana

Aghasura from 18th C Rajasthani painting

'A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism' by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, p. 247 mentions Agha as one of the tribes in alliance with Kamsa. Kamsa With the alliance of the Magadhas ( people of Magadha or ancient Bihar) and with the help of Pralamba, Baka, Chanura, Tri-navarta, Agha (अघा), Mushtika, Arishta, Dvivid, Putana, Kesi, Dhenuka, Vana, Bhouma and other Asuras, tormented the Yadus. They fled away to the kingdoms of Kuru, Panchala, Kekaya, Salva, Vidarbha, Nishadha, Videha, and Kausala. Some only remained behind and they followed the behests of Kansa. [21]

Aghasura (अघासुर), is a demon (asura) in Hindu and Vedic mythology. He was one of the generals of King Kamsa. The Bhagavata Purana states that he assumed the form of a vast serpent. Krishna's companions, the cowherd boys, entered its mouth, mistaking it for a mountain cavern. After seeing this, Krishna then came to their rescue, killing Aghasura. [22]

Aghapur (अघापुर) Village is in Bharatpur tahsil of Bharatpur district in Rajasthan. This is a very old village and just near Keoladeo National Park/ Bird Sanctuaary. It was probably the capital of Aghasura.

In Mahabharata

Agreya (आग्रेय) Mahabharata (III. 241.67)

Agreya (अग्रेय) was a janapada conquered by Karna (III. 241.67).


Sandhya Jain[23] writes.... 29. Bhadra (भद्र) - Associated with Rohitaka and Agreya in Karna's conquest (III. 241.67). They had many branches and fought on both sides in the war (Pandavas VI.52.9 and Kauravas VI.47.9).

Sandhya Jain[24] mentions Tribes With unclear Position in Kurukshetra War: 10. Agreya (अग्रेय) - A janapada conquered by Karna (III. 241.67). Possibly in Hisar region or near Agra.

The Mahabharata Tribe - Agreya (अग्रेय) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Agre (अग्रे)

In Ramayana

This is ancient Gotra and finds mention in Ramayana in Kishkindha Kand Sarga 41 as under:

तस्य आसीनम् नगस्य अग्रे मलयस्य' महोजसम्
द्रक्ष्यथ आदित्य संकाशम् अगस्त्यम् ऋषि सत्तमम् । ॥४-४१-१५॥

इतिहासकार दलीप सिंह अहलावत

इतिहासकार दलीप सिंह अहलावत[25] लिखते हैं..........जाट इतिहास पृ० 173-174 पर ठा० देशराज लिखते हैं कि - :“अब भी टांग (तांग) पर्वतमाला तङ्गण जाटों के नाम से मानसरोवर से आगे है। मौर्यकाल में यादव कुल के हैंगा जाट भारतवर्ष से चीन गये और वहां पर हिंगू पहाड़ एवं हुंगहू नदी के किनारे काफी समय तक राज्य किया और फिर स्वदेश आ गये जो आजकल हैंगा1 कहलाते हैं।” चीनी इतिहासकार डिगायन ने जाटों का अन्य वर्णन करते हुए उन्हें बौद्ध-धर्मावलंबी लिखा है (टाड राजस्थान पहली जिल्द)। मि० ग्राउस साहब अपने लिखित इतिहास ‘मथुरा मेमायर्स’ में नववीर (नोहवार) जाटों को खोतन के पास नोह झील से वापिस आए हुए बताते हैं। वे लिखते हैं कि “नोहवार भारतीय नवराष्ट्र के रहने वाले लोग थे और वे खोतन के ऊपर तक पहुंच गये थे। हूणों के आक्रमण से पहले वे भारत में वापिस आ गये थे और अब नोह झील (जिला मथुरा) क्षेत्र में रहते हैं।” मि० कनिंघम साहब सिक्ख इतिहास में लिखते हैं कि “जाटों के अन्दर एक चीन गोत्र है जिससे उसका चीन जाना सिद्ध होता है। विदेशों में जातियां या तो उपनिवेश स्थापना के लिये जाती हैं अथवा धर्म-प्रचार के लिये। जाटों ने दोनों ही कार्य चीन में जाकर किये।”

जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज, पृ० X, XI पर बी० एस० दहिया ने लिखा है कि “चीनियों के कहने अनुसार हिंगनू लोग यूची (जाट) लोगों का ही एक हिस्सा था। इन यूची या जूटी लोगों के


1. हैंगा शब्द को चीनी भाषा में हिंगनू बोलते हैं। इन हैंगा जाटों के नाम पर हिंगू पहाड़ एवं हुंगहू नदी चीन देश में है। हैंगा जाट जिला मथुरा में काफी संख्या में आबाद हैं। इनके वहां 360 गांव हैं। हिंगू लोगों की धाक और उनके राज्य की चर्चा चीन देश में अब तक व्याप्त है।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-324


दो बड़े खण्ड (विभाग) थे जिनमें से एक नाम “ता-यू-ची”, जिसका अर्थ है - महान् (प्रसिद्ध, शक्तिशाली) जाट संघ और दूसरे का नाम “सिऊ-यू-ची” था, जिसका अर्थ है छोटा या साधारण जाटसंघ। यूनानी प्रसिद्ध इतिहासकार हैरोडोटस ने जाटों के इन दो बड़े विभागों को मस्सा-गेटाई, जिसका अर्थ है “महान् जाट” (Great Jats) और थीस्सा गेटाई, जिसका अर्थ है छोटे जाट (Little Jats) लिखा है।” आगे इसी लेखक ने पृ० 25 पर लिखा है कि हिंगनू जाटों के दबाव से सिऊ-यूची जाट दक्षिण में तिब्बत की ओर चले गये और ता-यूची जाट पश्चिम की ओर गये और उन्होंने बैक्ट्रिया (बल्ख) पर अधिकार कर लिया।”

महावन का जाट वंश

महावन का जाट वंश जादौं वंशी हगा जाटों के अधीन था, महमूद गजनवी के आक्रमणों के दौरान इस क्षेत्र पर सम्राट कुलिचंद्र हंगा का शासन था।[26]

जिनके पुत्र राजा बरामल सिंह ने केरारों पर विजय प्राप्त की थी।

कुषाण से संबंधित जाट गोत्र

डॉ धर्मचंद विद्यालंकार [27] लिखते हैं कि कुषाणों का साम्राज्य मध्य-एशिया स्थित काश्गर-खोतान, चीनी, तुर्किस्तान (सिकियांग प्रान्त) से लेकर रूस में ताशकंद और समरकंद-बुखारा से लेकर भारत के कपिशा और काम्बोज से लेकर बैक्ट्रिया से पेशावर औए मद्र (स्यालकोट) से मथुरा और बनारस तक फैला हुआ था. उस समय मथुरा का कुषाण क्षत्रप हंगमाश था. जिसके वंशज हगा या अग्रे जाट लोग, जो कि कभी चीन की हूगाँ नदी तट से चलकर इधर आये थे, आज तक मथुरा और हाथरस जिलों में आबाद हैं. आज भी हाथरस या महामाया नगर की सादाबाद तहसील में इनके 80 गाँव आबाद हैं. (पृ.19 )

कुषाणों अथवा युचियों से रक्त सम्बन्ध रखने वाले ब्रज के जाटों में आज तक हगा (अग्रे), चाहर, सिनसिनवार, कुंतल, गांधरे (गांधार) और सिकरवार जैसे गोत्र मौजूद हैं. मथुरा मेमोयर्स के लेखक कुक साहब ने लिखा है कि मथुरा जिले के कुछ जाटों ने अपना निकास गढ़-गजनी या रावलपिंडी से बताया है. कुषाण साम्राज्य के अधिकांश क्षेत्र में जाटों की सघन जन संख्या उनको कुषाण वंसज होना सिद्ध करती है.(पृ.20)

आग्रेय

आग्रेय (AS, p.61) गणराज्य अलक्षेंद्र के समय में पंजाब में स्थित था। संभव है आग्रेय अग्राहा का ही पाठांतर हो। [28]

यौधेय गणराज्य में अग्रेय

यौधेय गणराज्य ने कालान्तर में एक शक्तिशाली गण-संघ का रूप ले लिया था, जिसके अन्तर्गत अनेक गणों की शक्ति जुड़ गई थी। यौधेय गणसंघ के मुख्य गण थै- यौधेय, आर्जुनायन, मालव, अग्रेय तथा भद्रआर्जुनायन गणराज्य आधुनिक भरतपुर और अलवर क्षेत्रों पर आधारित था तथा मालव गणराज्य पहले पंजाब के आधुनिक मालवा क्षेत्र में स्थित था परन्तु इण्डोग्रीक आक्रमणों के कारण मालव राजपूताना क्षेत्र चले गये। जयपुर क्षेत्र में मालवनगर नामक प्राचीन स्थान उनकी राजधानी थी। अग्रेय गण की राजधानी आज का अग्रोहा था। एक मत के अनुसार यहां के गणपति एवं गणाध्यक्ष को अग्रसेन की उपाधि से अलंकृत किया जाता था। अग्रेय अपनी समाजवादी व्यवस्था के लिए प्रसिद्ध थे। जहाँ प्राचीन-काल में अग्रोहा अपनी समृद्धि और विकास के लिए प्रसिद्ध था वहाँ आज भी अग्रवाल जाति अपना विकास अग्रेहा से मानती है। वर्तमान अग्रवाल जाति का विकास इसी गणराज्य से हुआ है। इस गणराज्य में सिकंदर की सेनाओं का डटकर मुकाबला किया। जब उन्हें लगा कि वे युद्ध में जीत हासिल नहीं कर पायेंगे तब उन्होंने स्वयं अपनी नगरी को जला लिया।

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज (पृ.-171) के अनुसार ज्ञातिवादी अर्थात् जाट लोग इसी संघर्ष में उत्तर में जगजार्टिस नदी तक और पच्छिम में ईरान की खाड़ी तक फैल गए। यहीं से वे अपने जत्थों द्वारा इधर-उधर भी गए। जदुकाडूंग से शनैःशनैः काश्मीर की ओर फिर दर्दस्तान को पार करके कुछ यादव पूर्वी चीन तक पहुंचे। चीन के प्राचीन इतिहास अपने को भारतीयों के वंशज बताते हैं। हियंगू नदी और हुंगा पर्वत के पास के लोग जो भारत में लौटकर आ गए, आज हग्गा जाट कहलाते हैं।

ठाकुर देशराज आगे लिखते हैं - कुषाण जाटवंशज सम्राट् कनिष्क (सन् 120 से 162 ई०) का सेनापति हंगामस था जो कि तुषार गोत्र का जाट था। सम्राट् कनिष्क की ओर से वह मथुरा में क्षत्रप (गवर्नर) रहा। उसके वंशधरों ने उसी के नाम से अपना परिचय देना प्रारम्भ किया। राज्यपदासीन वंशज होने से बृज में विशेष सम्मानित हुए। मुगल शासन ने इन हंगा जाटों को चौधरी की उपाधि दी। मथुरा जिले में हंगा चौधरी जाटों के गांव निम्न प्रकार से हैं -

निग्रवा गांव से 24, कुरसण्डा से 22, विसावर से 12, तरसीगा से 12, अरौठा से 5 गांव और 24 खेड़े बसे। इस तरह से मथुरा जिले में इन जाटों के 75 गांव और 24 खेड़े हैं। इनके प्रसिद्ध गांव - कारब, भरऊनेरा, धकरई, नगला नत्थू, नगला हरिया, अरोटा, रजावल, कलाई आदि हैं। [29]

शियोंग-नू साम्राज्य

शियोंग-नू साम्राज्य (Xiong-nu Empire), प्राचीन चीनी इतिहासकारों के अनुसार तीसरी शताब्दी ईसापूर्व में उन्होंने मोदू चानयु (冒顿单于, Modu Chanyu) नामक सरदार के नेतृत्व में २०९ ईसापूर्व में एक साम्राज्य संगठित कर लिया था। दूसरी शताब्दी ईसवी में उन्होंने अपने से पहले मध्य एशिया में शासन करने वाले युएझी (月支, Yuezhi) लोगों को हरा डाला और स्तेपी क्षेत्र की सबसे बड़ी शक्ति बन गए। वे दक्षिणी साइबेरिया, मंगोलिया, पश्चिमी मंचूरिया, भीतरी मंगोलिया, गांसू और शिनजियांग के इलाक़ों में सक्रीय थे।[30]

जैसा कि क्रित्फ़र पी. एटवुड के लेखों को पढ़ने से स्पष्ट होता है कि हियंग्नू और हूण और शियोंग्नु वस्तुत कोई अलग नहीं अपितु एक ही लोग थे,[31] फिर उनके बाद इतिहासकार बीएस दहिया के अनुसार यह युहचियों की हिंगनू शाखा(गोत्र) से संबंध रखते थे, जिसे की भारत में हैंगा जाट गोत्र भी कहते हैं।[32]

Xiong-nu(Heng-nu) Empire Under Modu Chanyu

शियोंगनू साम्राज्य पर अधिक जानकारी हेतु देखें, Wikipedia


Xiong-nu is an another empire ruled by Hiung-nu Jats(a branch of Yuh-chis), these Hiung-nu people in India known as Henga or Hanga Jats as mentioned by Historian BS Dahiya[33]

For more information about this empire visit Wikipedia.

History

Ram Swarup Joon[34] writes about Hanga Chaudhary: Hangamas was a General of the Kushan, Yuechi or Tushar kings. Hanga is very well known in history. He belonged to Tushar or Kasvan dynasty and was appointed as the Governor of Mathura. His descendants came to be called Hanga. They have about 80 villages in district of Mathura.


In India, the Indo-Scythians conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. Some of their satraps were Hagamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saca Great Satrap Rajuvula. The Mathura lion capital, an Indo-Scythian sandstone capital in crude style, from Mathura, and dated to the 1st century CE, describes in kharoshthi the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha, by Queen Nadasi Kasa, the wife of the Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura, Rajuvula. The capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura.


According to Thakur Deshraj the Shivi gotra Jats of Shivaliks and lower reaches of Lake Manasarowar left this area after the Battle of Mahabharata and migrated to Uttar Kuru. Some of them settled in Punjab in the area known as "Yadu ki Dung", some settled in Kashmir and the rest moved far north upto Siberia.

The Krishna vamshi people in Sanskrit were called "Karshney" and "Karshniya". Karshniya or Kasaniya is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan. These Krishna vanshi people in China were known as Kushan or Yuezhi.


Bhim Singh Dahiya has established that Kushan or Yuezhi were Jats. There were two branches of Yuezhi people. One of the branches was called "Ta-Yuezhi" which means "The great Jat Sangh". The other branch was "Siu-Yuezhi" which means "General Jat Sangh". The Greek historian Herodotus has written Massagetae for Ta-Yuezhi and Thysagetae for Siu-Yuezhi. The Yuezhi people inhabited the Outer Mongolia and Gansu province of China.

Satyaketu Vidyalankar has mentioned that Rishika Jats were inhabitants of western China region near Lop Nur Lake. Tocharian people were settled in between the areas of Sakas and Rishikas (Yuezhi) in the north of Tarim River and Tian Shan mountain. Huns inhabited areas to the north of those occupied by Sakas, Rishikas and Tocharians. Rishikas and Tocharians were friends. They attacked the kingdom of Sakas and captured Bactria (Balkh). Following the settlement of the Yuezhi (described in the West as "Tocharians"), the general area of Bactria came to be called Tokharistan. From the 1st century CE to the 3rd century CE, Tokharistan was under the rule of the Kushans. After that they occupied Camboj situated in northwest Afghanistan.

Rishikas and Tocharians who were earlier defeated by Huns became powerful now. They jointly defeated the Huns and forced them to move towards Mongolia.

Rishikas and Tocharians along with Ta-Yuezhi Jats became Muslims in this region. Later when the pressure of Muslim religion increased these people moved down to Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Ta-Yuezhi branch included Rishikas, Tocharians, Kushans, Chahars, Jadons, Sinsinwars, Kuntals, Sogadia gotra Jats. Tocharians and Rishikas were great warriors and they became strong followers of Budhhism. They also helped in spreading the Buddhism religion to far off places.

A branch of Tocharians was Hunga who came to Brij area in India and settled on the fertile banks of Yamuna River. Hunga Jats are believed to get their name from Hungamas satrap who came from the region of "Huang He" river and "hingu" hills in China. The Hunga over a period became "Aga". Aga in Sanskrit became "Agre" meaning advance, since these were the people first to come to Brij area. Kanishka had made the Hunga people the rulers of Mathura. Another branch of Tocharians moved to Afghanistan and upto Iran. Kanishka made these people the rulers of Ghazni.

According to Dharampal Singh Dudee, Agi gotra is different from Aga, Haga or Agre. Agi gotra started from a Jat named Aksha (अक्ष),; they are also considered as descendants of rishi Agastya. [35] Historian Vidya Praksh Tyagi mentiones it as one of the Major Jat Clans.[36]


Bhim Singh Dahiya[37] writes that Finally we come to the conclusion that the Chinese name Hiung-nu is correct, after all. These Hiung-nu were a clan dominant at that time. It was this clan which produced emperors like Touman, Maodun, Giya in the first three centuries prior to the Christian era. These Hiung-nu are still existing as a Jat clan in India and are called Heng or Henga. We must remember that the Kang Jat were named by the Chinese as Kang-nu; similarly the Heng were called Heng-nu or Hiung-nu. These were the 'Huna Mandal' rulers who fought with almost all the Indian powers, right up to 10th century A.D.

They are the Hing-nu of the Chinese. In Puranic literature, "Hinga' means Bahlika or vice versa, showing their connection with Central Asia. [38]

They have now 360 villages in Mathura district of U.P. The late Har Prasad Singh, Commissioner of Income Tax, was a Henga Jat. As for the word 'Huna' itself, it may be a war cry of these people. In Punjab, it is used in the sense of 'now', i.e., the time for the attack and final kill. Again, Otto Macnchen-Helfen may be right when he says that Hun is a Proto-Germanic adjective, signifying 'High'.131 As already stated, all the Jat clan names mean 'high' or 'top' or 'head', 'crown' or 'king'.


According to Alexander Cunningham[39]Fa-Hian states that the city of Kanoj touched the river Heng, or Ganges, when he visited it in A.D. 400.


Villages after Hanga

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[42] tells us ...At the time of Murder of the king Sussala in 1127 AD, the king said in anger that he who remains here is a traitor. Only two remained there, the betel-bearer, an old man, and the learned Rahila, the minister for peace and war. At this time Aghadeva and Nishtavaishya, two spies of Tikka, came from him not knowing what Utpala was about. [VIII (i),p.112] (AghadevaAgha)

Hanga Khap

Hanga Khap is also known as Agrapal Khap. This khap has 150 villages in Sadabad tahsil of Mathura district in Uttar Pradesh. The main villages are: Bisawar , Naugawan etc. Ch Devkaran of this khap fought bravely with British Govt. [43]

हंगा खाप

82. हंगा खाप - इस खाप को अग्रपाल भी कहा जाता है. इसके 150 गांव मथुरा जनपद की सादाबाद तहसील में है जिनमें बिसावर, नौगांव आदि मुख्य हैं. चौधरी देवकरन ने अंग्रेजों से लोहा दिया था. वह इसी खाप के थे.[44]

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Bharatpur district

Girdharpur Bharatpur, Didwari Bharatpur,

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Gwalior district

Dabra Gwalior, Gwalior,

Villages in Shivpuri district

Shivpuri,

Villages in Chhindwara district

Chhindwara,

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Villages in Agra district

Jarua Katra (Agra), Kurkanda,

Villages in Hathras district

Arotha, Bagh Ka Nagla, Bangarh Hathras, Chhatara, Garh Hathras, Hathras, Nagla Chhatti, Nagla Ghani, Naugawan, Neetiniwas, Sadabad, Sethrapur (Govra). Teeket(Bisawar wali), Teeket (Bisawar wali), Teeket, Tilhu, Tasingu, Unchagaon Hathras,

Villages in Aligarh district

Barhsera, Talesar, Nunhera Aligarh,

Villages in Mathura district

Agha Chaudhary Khap has 105 villages in Mathura district.[45]

Anta Ki Garhi, Baltikari, Bisawar, Chihattar, Ganjoli, Khumani Ki Garhi, Kārab, Kursanda, Magorra, Nagla Bharau, Nagla Sakat Singh, Nayabans Mathura, Radoi, Sarai Daud, Tilhū, Vidhipur,

Distribution in Delhi

Badarpur South Delhi,

Notable persons

Gajpal Singh.jpg

Gallery of Agre people

Further reading

References


List of References
  1. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.27,sn-34.
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. अ-44
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. अ-52
  4. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.27,sn-51.
  5. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.239, s.n.91
  6. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ह-1
  7. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ह-1
  8. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ह-1
  9. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ह-1
  10. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellew, p.31
  11. Historian BS Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study) Page 46
  12. D.S. Ahlawat's Jat Viro Ka Itihas(Hindi) p.324
  13. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Antiquity of the Jats, p. 303
  14. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.187
  15. "Mada'in Saleh - Arabian Rock Art Heritage".
  16. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 25
  17. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 30
  18. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 32
  19. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 32
  20. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 32
  21. A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, p. 247
  22. A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, p. 260-61
  23. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004, p. 119
  24. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004, p.128
  25. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV,p.324
  26. Kanwarpal Singh: Pandav Gatha, page 206-8.
  27. Jat Samaj:11/2013,pp 19-20
  28. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.61
  29. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter XI (Page 1030)
  30. Source Wikipedia
  31. Christopher P. Etwood's "Huns and Xiongnu, New Thoughts on an old Problem"
  32. BS Dahiya's Book Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study) Page 46
  33. BS Dahiya's Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study) P.46
  34. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 87
  35. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas
  36. Vidya Prakash Tyagi's "Martial Races of Undivided India" p.71
  37. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats, p.46
  38. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), 1980, Sterling Publishers New Delhi, p. 257
  39. The Ancient Geography of India: I. The Buddhist Period, Including the ...By Sir Alexander Cunningham, p.376-382
  40. Mathura, a Gazetteer 1984 (p.272-273)
  41. Mathura, a Gazetteer 1984 (pp.338-339)
  42. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i) ,p.112
  43. Ompal Singh Tugania : Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p. 23
  44. Ompal Singh Tugania : Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p. 23
  45. Jat Bandhu, Agra, April 1991
  46. Ompal Singh Tugania : Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p. 23
  47. Sarangi, Y. B. "CWG Wrestling: A reputation to live up to". Sportstar.
  48. Evans, Hilary; Gjerde, Arild; Heijmans, Jeroen; Mallon, Bill; et al. "Mukhtiar Singh Olympic Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020.
  49. "Arjun Award Awarded to Mukhtiar Singh". The Official Website of Ministry Of Youth Affairs And Sports Of India.
  50. Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, p.38
  51. Author Kanwarpal Singh' "Pandav Gatha" p.207
  52. District Gazetteers by Uttar Pradesh Government, 1959, vol.10/21 p.344: [1]
  53. Mathura-Brindaban-The Mystical Land Of Lord Krishna (2000) by F. S. Growse p.443

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